Carlota Perez

British-Venezuelan researcher, lecturer and international consultant, Carlota Perez studies the mutual shaping of technical change and society and the lessons provided by the history of technological revolutions for economic growth and development.

In Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital: The Dynamics of Bubbles and Golden Ages (Elgar 2002), she put forward her theory of the emergence and diffusion of technological revolutions and of the role of finance in the process. Her work has contributed to the present understanding of the relationship between technology, innovation and economic development; between technical and institutional change; and between finance and technological diffusion. She is currently working on a sequel, The Social Shaping of Technological Revolutions, funded by Anthemis UK, which will analyse the roles that government, business and civil society play in the deployment of the potential of each revolution.

She is Honorary Professor at the Institute for Innovation and Public Purpose (IIPP) at University College London, UK and at SPRU, the Science Policy Research Unit at the University of Sussex, UK; Adjunct Professor of Technology and Socio-Economic Development at the Ragnar Nurkse School of Innovation and Governance at TalTech, Estonia; Professor Perez’ books and papers are used as study material in post-graduate courses in universities around the world, and she has lectured at numerous seminars and student conferences.

Her long career has spanned civil service, consultancy, academic research and teaching, beginning in the 1970s with an investigation into the structural causes of the energy crisis in her home country of Venezuela. After working on international technology transfer at the Institute of Foreign Trade in the 1970s, she became the founding Director of Technological Development at the Ministry of Industry (1980-83) – where, alongside other policy instruments to promote innovation, she created the first venture capital fund in the country.

She has acted as consultant for several Latin American governments and for international organisations and multilateral agencies such as UNIDO, CEPAL, the Andean Pact, the World Bank, the OECD and the EU, where she chaired the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 Expert Group for Green Growth and Jobs. In the early 1990s she was advisor to INTEVEP, the R&D and technology arm of PDVSA, the national oil company in Venezuela, and has carried out consultancy work for many global corporations including IBM, Cisco, Telefonica, Mondragon, Ericsson and many others. Since the publication of her book, she has been regularly invited to participate as keynote speaker at international business conferences and public policy events.

Professor Perez received her License in Interdisciplinary Social Sciences (with Economics and Technology at the core) from the Faculty of Sciences, University of Paris VII, and her MA from San Francisco State University, where she developed the first formulation of her theory of technological revolutions and changing opportunities for development. In 2021, she was awarded an Honorary Doctorate by Utrecht University in the Netherlands.

While working at the Central University of Venezuela, she nurtured research links with several European universities. She was visiting scholar at IDS, University of Sussex and at INTECH-UNU, Maastricht. Her current position as Honorary Professor at SPRU started with a research fellowship in 1983, when she began a long-term collaboration with the late Professor Chris Freeman (whom she later married). She has been teaching a post-graduate course at the Tallinn University of Technology since 2007; she was invited as senior researcher to CERF at the Judge Business School, Cambridge University, from 2002 until 2014 and was Centennial Professor 2015-2018 at the London School of Economics (LSE). Her current condition of Honorary Professor at IIPP-UCL began from the founding of the Institute by her colleague Mariana Mazzucato

In 2020 she was signalled in Forbes as one of “Five Economists redefining everything” and in Prospect magazine as one of  The World’s Top 50 Thinkers. In 2022 in the Centennial Edition of Foreign Affairs, her book Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital was chosen as one of the three “books for the century” in Economics, by the renowned economic historian Barry Eichengreen. In the same year, she received the José Ferrer Prize for academic merit from the SVIP (Venezuelan Society of Petroleum Engineers) as well as the 2022 Lifetime Achievement Award from the World Agility Forum


Consultancy And Lectures

For the Public Sector

Multilateral Organizations

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  • CAF
  • European Union
  • IADB
  • OAS
  • OECD
  • SELA
  • UNDP
  • UN Development Policy and Analysis Division
  • World Bank

National and local government organizations

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  • Central Bank/ASTUR, Uruguay
  • City of Amsterdam, Mayor and his Aldermen
  • City of Amsterdam, Alderman for Urban Planning
  • CNPq, Brasilia
  • CONACYT, Ecuador
  • CONADE, Ecuador
  • CONAVI, National Council for Housing, Venezuela
  • CONCYTEG, S&T Council of Guanajuato, Mexico
  • CONDIBIECA, consejo Nacional para el Desarrollo de la industria de Bienes de Capital, Venezuela
  • CONICIT, Venezuela
  • Consejo Nacional de Educación, Venezuela
  • Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Spain
  • COPRE, Comisión Presidencial para la Reforma del Estado, Venezuela
  • CORDIPLAN, Venezuela
  • CORFO (Development corporation), Ministry of the Economy, Chile
  • Corporación de Fomento, CORFO, Chile
  • Estonian Development Fund, Tallinn
  • Financial Crisis Commission of the Norwegian Government, Oslo
  • FINTEC, Fundación para el Financiamiento Tecnológico, Venezuela
  • FUNDAYACUCHO, Venezuela
  • FuturesIreland, National Economic & Social Development Council, Ireland
  • Gobierno de Sao Paulo, Brasil
  • Government of the Province of Alberta, Canada
  • INNOVA, Chile
  • Institute for Public Planning, Global Policy Forum, Yaroslavl, Russia
  • IDRC, Internacional Development Research Council, Canada
  • IVEPLAN, Venezuela
  • Ministry of Agriculture, Venezuela
  • Ministry of Science and Technology, Venezuela
  • Ministry of Economic Affairs, Directorate-General Telecommunications and Post, Netherlands
  • Ministry of Education, Venezuela
  • Ministry of Science and Technology and Municipality of Shanghai, PR China
  • Ministry of the Development, Venezuela
  • Ministry of the Economy, Estonia
  • Netherlands Council for the Environment and Infrastructure
  • Norwegian Environmental Agency
  • Senate Technology Committee, Chile

For Companies and Organizations

Private and public companies

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  • Accenture, UK
  • AES, Caracas
  • AliBaba, China
  • AMR Research, Boston
  • Anthemis, London
  • Baillie-Gifford, Scotland, UK
  • Balderton Capital, CEO retreat, U.K.
  • Bankinter Foundation, Future Trends Forum, Madrid
  • CISCO Emerging Markets, London
  • CISCO-CUD (Connected Urban Development) San Francisco, CA
  • COINDESK Annual Consensus event, US (virtual)
  • CVG, Guayana
  • Cyrte Investments, Amsterdam
  • EGG, London
  • Ericsson, Stockholm
  • GENAUT, Caracas and Palo Alto, CA
  • Grupo GALAC, Caracas
  • IKEA Swiss branch
  • Leading Edge Forum, London
  • MCC, Mondragon, Basque Country
  • MOVISTAR, Spain
  • MyB Solutions, Caracas
  • IBM, Armonk, N.Y.
  • OTEPI, Caracas
  • PDVSA, Venezuela
  • PDVSA-CIED, Venezuela
  • PDVSA-INTEVEP, Venezuela
  • Penteo ICT Analyst, Barcelona, Spain
  • Polar, Venezuela
  • Price Waterhouse, Coopers, The Hague
  • Sarasin & Partners LLP, London, UK 2019
  • Shell Scenarios and Future Energy teams, Amsterdam (Via Tallberg Foundation, Sweden)
  • Sisex, Caracas
  • SIVENSA, Valencia
  • SOGETI, Technology Research Institute (VINT), Amsterdam
  • Venalum, Guayana
  • Warburg Pincus, New York

Industry and management associations

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  • ADEX, Exporters Association of Perú
  • AETIC, Association of Electronics, Information Technology and Communications Industry, Spain
  • AIMM, Association Metallurgical and Mining Industries, Guayana
  • ALABIC, Latin American Association of Capital Goods Producers
  • ALAFACE, Latin American Brewers Association
  • ANRI, Human Resources Association of Venezuela
  • APDC, Portuguese Association for the Development of Communications, Lisbon
  • ASOFOFA, Industrial Promotion Asociation, Chile
  • ASUT, Swiss Telecommunications Summit, Bern
  • AVE, Venezuelan Managment Association
  • CANTO, Caribbean Association of National Telecommunications Organizations
  • CANTV, Venezuelan Telecommunications Company
  • Carabobo State Management Association, Venezuela
  • CEPET, PDVSA, Venezuela
  • CEPROCA, Venezuela
  • CONINDUSTRIA, Venezuela
  • Estonian Management Conference, Parnu, Estonia
  • Fundación Bankinter, Foro Tendencias Futuras, Madrid
  • FUNDAMETAL, Venezuela
  • FTTH Council of Europe, Milan Conference
  • ICARE, Chile
  • Norsk Investorforum, Norwegian Investors Association

Foundations and other institutions

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  • ACUP. Catalonian Association of Public Universities
  • ALC, The Swedish Center for Working Life, Sweden
  • ALEMO, Venezuela
  • Apalancar (NGO support network), Venezuela
  • ASTUR/Central Bank, Uruguay
  • Broadband Cities, Amsterdam
  • CEPREMAP, France
  • Chilean Association of Biotechnologists
  • Construcao Sustentavel (Sustainable Construction), Human Habitat, Lisbon
  • CIDES, International Center for Sustainable Development, Panama
  • CIDOB (Barcelona Centre for International Affairs)
  • CRIMPO, Venezuela
  • DEMOS, U.K.
  • Digital Future Society, Spain
  • Ellen MacArthur Foundation
  • EUREKA, Caracas
  • FIM-productividad, Venezuela
  • Fundación GAIA, Venezuela
  • Fundación GALAC, Venezuela
  • Fundacion Pais Digital, Chile
  • FUNDAPYME, Venezuela
  • FUNDES, Latin America
  • GRADE, Peru
  • Global Commission on Climate Change, Economic Advisory Panel
  • IANIS+/Eris@, Brussels
  • IDEC, Venezuela
  • IDRC, Canada
  • Institute of Engineering, Venezuela
  • INTEC, Chile
  • National Library of Venezuela
  • NESTA (NGO promoting innovation) UK
  • NORISS, Norway
  • ODI – Overseas Development Institute, London
  • O’Reilly Media Web 2.0 Expo New York
  • Presidential Comittee for Industrial Competitiveness, Venezuela
  • Presidential Comittee for the 5th Centennial, Venezuela
  • PROPYME, Venezuela
  • Revista SIC, Venezuela
  • RSA – Royal Society of Arts, London
  • TEKNA – Norwegian Engineering Association
  • Venezuela Competitiva
  • WAPES, World Association of Public Employment Services, Amsterdam Workshop

For Academia

Universities and Research Institutes

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  • Adolfo Ibanez University, Chile
  • Brighton University, UK
  • Cambridge University, Faculty of Economics, UK
  • Campinas University, Brazil
  • CENDES, Center for Development studies, Central University of Venezuela
  • CERF, Cambridge University, U.K.
  • CIRCLE (Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy), Lund University, Sweden
  • Deusto University, Bilbao
  • Duke University, US
  • Erasmus University, European Conference on Sustainability Transitions, Amsterdam
  • ESAN, Graduate School of Business Administration, Peru
  • IDS, Institute of Development Studies, U.K.
  • IE, Instituto de Empresa, Madrid
  • IFIAS, International Federation of Institutes for Advanced Studies
  • IIASA, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria
  • Imperial College Business School, Innovation Studies Centre, London
  • Institut d’Emprenedoria (Entrepreneurship Institute), University of Barcelona
  • Institute for Production, University of Aalborg, Denmark
  • INTECH, United Nations University, Maastricht, Netherlands
  • ISEG, Lisbon School of Economics and Management Summer School, Lisbon University
  • IPPR, Institute for Public Policy Research, London
  • Lund University, Sweden
  • LSE, London School of Economics
  • National University of Rosario, Argentina. Post Graduate program in Management of Innovation and Technological Networks
  • Oxford University – III CAF-Oxford Conference 2016. Understanding the Challenges of Informality in Latin America
  • RPI (Research Policy Institute), Lund University, Sweden
  • SPRU, University of Sussex, U.K.
  • SUM, Centre for Development and the Environment, University of Oslo, Norway
  • Technical University Federico Santa María, Valparaíso, Chile
  • Technological University of Tallinn, MA in Technology Governance, Estonia
  • TUDelft, Netherlands
  • UAM, Autonomous University of México -Xochimilco
  • UC Berkeley, California
  • UCL, University College London, UK
  • UNAM, Institute of Economic Research, Mexico city
  • Universidad Catolica Del Norte, Antofagasta, Chile
  • Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia
  • Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Dept. of International Economics and Development
  • Universidad de Barcelona
  • Universidad de Buenos Aires
  • Universidad de Chile
  • Universidad de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
  • University of Oslo, Norwegian Business School – Annual Seminar on Green Economics
  • Universidad Iberoamericana, Leon, Mexico
  • Universitá Degli Studi de Venecia, Italia
  • Universitá di Padova, Italia
  • USACH, Santiago de Chile
  • Utrecht University, Netherlands
  • Volkswagen Corporate University, Auto Uni, Wolfsburg

Universities in Venezuela

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  • IESA Business School, Caracas
  • Masters course in Economics, Universidad de Carabobo
  • Masters course in Technology Management, LUZ
  • Metropolitan University, Post-graduate Center in Puerto La Cruz
  • PhD course in Social Sciences, UCV
  • Tele-Education Program, Central University of Venezuela
  • UCAB, Andrés Bello Catholic University
  • UNITEC, Technological University of the Central Region
  • UPEL, Experimental University in Pedagogy
  • USB, Simon Bolivar University



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